BLOOD IS IMPORTANT. You may not think so, but shockingly that red iron filled liquid isn’t just for decoration at crime scenes. Blood consist of four important elements; red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma. Red blood cells are the competent that make blood red and consist of four molecules of haemoglobin which can bind to oxygen and take oxygen to your respiring tissue. In laymen’s terms; red blood cell makes your breathing in worth something. White blood cells are what stop you from dying from the common cold. White blood cells can either eat pathogens in the blood stream or realises antibodies to hunt down and destroy pathogens, they are your own little police force and I do mean little white blood cells are 12 micrometers wide. Platelets, in my opinion the most important competent of the blood, due to its clotting function, to stop you dying from a paper cut, go Team Platelets! Finally, the blood plasma carries everything else your cells could need including hormones, minerals, water and waste substances such as carbon dioxide. So totting it up blood is very important all 5.5 litres of it and while this may seem like a lot it is only 7% of the human’s body weight. So how much are we allow to lose before we have to admit dating a vampire probably was a bad idea? Blood loss can be categorised into four classifications. Class 1 is around 15% which is just a little more than people donate to said vampires (and hospitals if they’re boring). This usually only leave a person feeling slightly faint with no other effect. The wounds that usually have class 1 blood loss, include-
- Abrasion which are scrape only to the epidermis of the skin which minor or no bleeding. Most weapons will not cause abrasions, being too sharp to do so. Hammers are the most likely weapon to cause abrasion but mostly these are cause by falls and accidents. So these hold no danger unless there is an underlying disease such as cutaneous condition.
- Blunt trauma which is when there is no incision made, such as in a car crash or from punches. Depending on the organs exposed to the trauma, surgery is debateable but in most cases, those of punches and fighting without weapons there is little internal bleeding and only class 1 external blood loss.
Class 2 blood loss, which is 15% to 30% which is when the body starts to show sign of blood loss as the heart starts beating faster which increase pressure to making sure blood continues to deliver that all important oxygen to the muscles. External symptoms would include the victim appearing pale and skin becoming cooler. These include-
- Incisions can mostly in each of the category but are mainly in class 2 blood loss. This is where a sharp cut is made usually with a knife, a sword, etc. it all depends on if the cut is into a major artery. Most of arteries exist in the softer tissues of the external body. Class 2 cut will be caused to the four arteries of the lower legs and Ulna artery in the arm.
- Penetrating trauma, while serve will only cause Class 2 blood loss. The difference between incisions and penetrating trauma is penetrating involves penetrating the skin and muscle. This is why it can be so fatal as it leads to organ distortion and failure.
A Class 3 is the loss of at least 30% of blood and now a blood transfusion would be a must as now the heart is straining to get oxygen to the cells however it isn’t enough as small blood vessels, the capillaries where the oxygen leaves the blood, start to close in vasoconstriction. This includes
- Any major incision to the radius artery of the arm and Subclavian artery under the arm.
- Penetrating trauma once again if to the heart, cause the heart to bleed out
- The removal of a limb, however only out of surgery would this hold a problem.
Class 4 is anything over 40% and without almost immediate help a person will certainly due to the strain on the heart to continue pumping blood around the body. This will lead to organ failure and a comatose state before certain death. Fun! This includes
- The incision of the Carotid artery of the neck and Common ilac artery of the inner thigh.
Nowadays 80% of all blood loss cases in hospitals are solve without death, (I don’t know how could solve it with death [Your patient maybe dead but I just love the knitting pattern you used for the stitches]). But do not lose hope there are some simple ways of explaining away survival without a hospital. Unless you’re at Class 4, then Jesus Christ just think of a good last line, you’re fricked. The body itself does try to help, though can end up fricking it up. The body tries to maintain pressure in the blood vessels by vasoconstriction which we’ve mentioned before and the cardiac output is redistributed to important areas such as the brain. The first thing a people can do to help is try and keep the blood inside a person. Obvious to be sure, the methods of doing so are just as obvious, applying pressure and raising the injury above the level of the heart. Applying pressure should be done with sterilised equipment given an external wound can become easily infected.